z-index

div {
  z-index: 1; /* integer */
}

The z-index property in CSS controls the vertical stacking order of elements that overlap. As in, which one appears as if it is physically closer to you. z-index only effects elements that have a position value other than static (the default).

Elements can overlap for a variety of reasons, for instance relative positioning has nudged it over something else. Negative margin has pulled the element over another. Absolutely positioned elements overlap each other. All sorts of reasons.

Without any z-index value, elements stack in the order that they appear in the DOM (the lowest one down at the same hierarchy level appears on top). Elements with non-static positioning will always appear on top of elements with default static positioning.

Also note that nesting plays a big role. If an element B sits on top of element A, a child element of element A can never be higher than element B.

Note that older version of IE get this context stuff a bit screwed up. Here's a jQuery fix for that.

More Information

Browser Support

Chrome Safari Firefox Opera IE Android iOS
Works Works Works Works 4+ 4+ Works

Comments

  1. User Avatar
    Mr Z
    Permalink to comment#

    “Also note that nesting plays a big role. If an element B sits on top of element A, a child element of element A can never be higher than element B.”

    That’s not quite right. In your illustration, “not child” will only be on top if the green box starts a stacking context, for which it needs z-index of anything except auto (or opacity of anything except 1.0). Just being position: relative doesn’t start a stacking context.

    The main point about stacking contexts is that z-index can be used to rearrange the stacking order of elements only inside their own stacking context. That entire stacking context has a stacking position within its stacking context that’s determined by its z-index property and those of its siblings in that parent stacking context. Elements from different stacking contexts are therefore never interleaved in the final stacking order (this is what the spec means when it says stacking contexts are “atomic”).

    If you think in terms of the “painters algorithm”, where objects are painted onto a scene back-to-front, then a stacking context is like a painting within a painting. You first paint everything in the stacking context back-to-front in the proper order, then slap the whole result in whereever it belongs when you come to paint its parent context.

    With no z-index, things do stack pretty much in DOM order but with positioned stuff above, but it’s also worth mentioning that floats are also brought in front of non-floats (but behind the positioned boxes).

  2. User Avatar
    Toby
    Permalink to comment#

    This had me caught out for a while earlier, so I thought I’d post a note here – don’t forget that z-index still respects parent’s overflow. So if you still can’t see something despite a z-index in the millions, check it’s not being cropped by an overflow:hidden

  3. User Avatar
    Helen
    Permalink to comment#

    Thanks, I’ve been fighting with z-index again today. For the first time I think I might be winning!

    • User Avatar
      ankush
      Permalink to comment#

      hi, i am ankush form india and i am web designer. i want to work with you can we talk ? my skype is ankushkumawat

  4. User Avatar
    Stupothead
    Permalink to comment#

    Hi, I have come across a issue where negative Z-Index does not work on IOS ipad 4. Its real bummer as it used to send a fullscreen BG to the back of my template which is useful as I dont have to assign Z-Index to all the other elements. Does any one know a suitable solution, maybe iOS as some of its own special commands which is the trend these days.? Cheers.

  5. User Avatar
    Abhinav
    Permalink to comment#

    @Toby: Thanks mate :) Little things :)

  6. User Avatar
    Tahmid

    Z-index is new to me. Still I am not so clear about it. Can you please help me by giving some examples. Does it work in iOS also?

    • User Avatar
      arush
      Permalink to comment#

      img {
      position: absolute;
      left: 0px;
      top: 0px;
      z-index: -1;
      }

      This is a heading

      Because the image has a z-index of -1, it will be placed behind the text.

  7. User Avatar
    akshay
    Permalink to comment#

    Z-index is one of the most important css property of element, when overlaying one component over other. Thanks. Nice information

  8. User Avatar
    Rex
    Permalink to comment#

    thanks for your life saving teachings! you have rescued me from being drowned!

  9. User Avatar
    braders
    Permalink to comment#

    I spent an hour trying to figure this out, and the information was here. Your amazing

  10. User Avatar
    Salman
    Permalink to comment#

    thanks. your comment saved me from googling

  11. User Avatar
    Vaibhav
    Permalink to comment#

    Thanks for the info!! really helpful!!

  12. User Avatar
    sk
    #border {
        width:250px;
        height:350px;
        background:url('border.png') no-repeat;
        margin:auto;
        position:relative;
    }
    .picture {
        position:relative;
        z-index:100;
     }
    

    Not Working

    • User Avatar
      md
      Permalink to comment#

      its working to me !!

    • User Avatar
      manoj

      This code is not working because your all element position is relative. you should try parents position is relative and child position is absolute. this code is absolutely work.

      This is paragraph

      p is parent and img is child .

  13. User Avatar
    ktian

    cool responsive website :D
    keep it up

  14. User Avatar
    Internet Marketing
    Permalink to comment#

    So this is good knowledge, but it would make this article really useful if you showed how to get the “CHILD” to stack above the “NOT CHILD”, while still remaining a child of the green element.

  15. User Avatar
    Nazmul Hasan
    Permalink to comment#

    Nice article boss…

  16. User Avatar
    Atul
    Permalink to comment#

    Hi all

    Please let know is it good to give z-index:1000 and above ?

    Atul Bhalerao

  17. User Avatar
    Joseph OLeary
    Permalink to comment#

    Was using this technique and got hung up by an overflow: hidden; being applied by bootstrap.

  18. User Avatar
    srikanth
    Permalink to comment#

    superb visual examples, i tried its working “z-index:2;”

  19. User Avatar
    Shah
    Permalink to comment#

    Thanks a lot. After struggling for 12 hours I finally solved it with your help.

    Thanks A lot….

  20. User Avatar
    dago
    Permalink to comment#

    Hi Cris! Here one more interesting thing how OPACITY can change positioning. http://codepen.io/dagolinuxoid/pen/GJgBaK

    • User Avatar
      daGo
      Permalink to comment#

      I wrote Chris without “h” – can’t believe it)) … sorry.

  21. User Avatar
    Alka Jain

    I have a site – http://www.couponcandy.in/ where my menu has a category which is going under my adsense ad while i mouse hover on it. any help would be great

  22. User Avatar
    Shemaya
    Permalink to comment#

    Thank you! was realy helpfull

  23. User Avatar
    kenneth
    Permalink to comment#

    Thanks! finally my problem solve … :D

  24. User Avatar
    vijendhar
    Permalink to comment#

    I want to place the address on the google maps in my website with z-index can any one help me

  25. User Avatar
    Devendra Gawande
    Permalink to comment#

    It help me allot to improve my my skills OyoRooms coupon code

  26. User Avatar
    Usma Islam
    Permalink to comment#

    very nice ! thank you so much :)

  27. User Avatar
    fazal
    Permalink to comment#

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