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Robin Rendle on (Updated on )

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The background-blend-mode property defines how an element’s background-image should blend with its background-color:

.container {
  background-image: url('image.jpg');
  background-color: red;
  background-blend-mode: screen;

In the demo above, the default background-image on the left has no blend mode set and so the image overlaps the background-color. On the right however, the blend mode has modified the background-image with the red background-color underneath. But notice that the text color has not been affected by this additional property.


  • initial: the default value with no blending.
  • inherit: inherits the blend mode of the parent element.
  • <blend-mode>: a value that will change the background-image depending on its background-color.

The value can be set as any of the following (in the demos below the background-color is red):

normal: as shown above, the background-color will not bleed through the background-image.
multiply: the background-image and background-color are multiplied and typically this leads to a darker image than before.
screen: both image and color is inverted, multiplied and then inverted again.
overlay: the background-color is mixed with the background-image to reflect the lightness or darkness of the backdrop.
darken: if the background-image is darker than the background-color then the image is replaced, otherwise it is left as it was.
lighten: if the background-image is lighter than the background-color then the image is replaced, otherwise it is left as it was.
color-dodge: the background-color is divided by the inverse of the background-image. This is very similar to the screen blend mode.
color-burn: the background-color is inverted, divided by the background-image and inverted again. This is similar to multiply.
hard-light: if the background-image is lighter than the background-color then the result is muliply or if it is lighter then the result is screen.
soft-light: the final result is similar to hard-light but softer in that it looks like a diffused spotlight has been placed on the image.
difference: the result by subtracting the darker color of the background-image and the background-color from the lightest one. Often the image will have a very high contrast.
exclusion: the result is very similar to difference yet with a little lower contrast.
hue: the result is the hue of the background-image combined with the luminosity and saturation of the background-color.
saturation: keeps the saturation of the background-image whilst mixing the hue and luminosity of the background-color.
color: keeps hue and saturation of background-image and the luminosity of the background-color. In this example because the image is gray and the effect preserves gray levels all we get is a big gray blob.
luminosity: luminosity of the top color is preserved whilst using the saturation and hue of the background-color.

Chaining multiple blend modes

Each background layer can only have a single blend mode, however if we’re using multiple linear gradients for instance, each of them can have their own blend mode which makes for an interesting display:

This is achieved by listing these values in order of the background layer that you’d like to effect:

.container {
    linear-gradient(purple 0%, red 90%), 
    linear-gradient(to right, purple 0%, yellow 90%), 
    url('image.jpg') 30px,
    url('image.jpg') 20px;
  background-blend-mode: screen, difference, lighten;

The first linear gradient has the screen blend mode, followed by the second linear gradient which has difference and the first background image which has lighten applied to it.


Here’s a working example of how those values are interpreted depending on the background-color:

Browser support

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.



Mobile / Tablet

Android ChromeAndroid FirefoxAndroidiOS Safari

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