More Unicode Patterns

Creating is the most intense excitement one can come to know.

Anni Albers, On Designing

I recently wrote a post — that was shared here on CSS-Tricks — where I looked at ways to use Unicode characters to create interesting (and random) patterns. Since then, I’ve continued to seek new characters to build new patterns. I even borrowed a book about Unicode from a local library.

(That's a really thick book, by the way.)

It's all up to your imagination to see the possible patterns a Unicode character can make. Although not all characters are good as patterns, the process is a good exercise for me.

And, aside from Unicode itself, the methods to build the patterns may not be so obvious. It usually takes a lot of inspiration and trial and error to come up with new ones.


Three Techniques for Performant Custom Font Usage

There’s a lot of good news in the world of web fonts!

  1. The forthcoming version of Microsoft Edge will finally implement unicode-range, the last modern browser to do so.
  2. Preload and font-display are landing in Safari and Firefox.
  3. Variable fonts are shipping everywhere.

Using custom fonts in a performant way is becoming far easier. Let’s take a peek at some things we can do when using custom fonts to make sure we’re being as performant as we can be.


Ordered Lists with Unicode Symbols

Ordered lists are among the oldest and most semantically rich elements in HTML. Anytime you need to communicate sequence or ranking, the <ol></ol> tag is there to help. The default appearance of the <ol></ol> tag presents numbers next to each item in the list. You can use the list-style-type property in CSS to change the default to use Roman numerals or the letters of the alphabet. If you are feeling exotic, you can even use numbering from other cultures like Hebrew or Greek. The full list of available values is well-documented and easy to use.

Recently, I saw an opportunity to use dice in place of numbers for several ordered lists explaining the features of an HTML5 game I created (more…)


Special Characters

&quot; &#34; " quotation mark u+0022 ISOnum p:before { content:"\0022"; } alert("\42")
&amp; &#38; & ampersand u+0026 ISOnum p:before { content:"\0026"; } alert("\46")
&lt; &#60; < less-than sign u+003C ISOnum p:before { content:"\003c"; } alert("\74");
&gt; &#62; > greater-than sign u+003E ISOnum p:before { content:"\003e"; } alert("\76");

Latin-1 entity set for HTML

&nbsp;   &#160; no-break space %A0 p:before { content:"\00a0"; } alert("\240");
&iexcl; ¡ &#161; inverted exclamation mark %A1 p:before { content:"\00a1"; } alert("\241");
&cent; ¢ &#162; cent sign %A2 p:before { content:"\00a2"; } alert("\242");
&pound; £ &#163; pound sterling sign %A3 p:before { content:"\00a3"; } alert("\243");
&curren; ¤ &#164; general currency sign %A4 p:before { content:"\00a4"; } alert("\244");
&yen; ¥ &#165; yen sign %A5 p:before { content:"\00a5"; } alert("\245");
&brvbar; ¦ &#166; broken (vertical) bar %A6 p:before { content:"\00a6"; } alert("\246");
&sect; § &#167; section sign %A7 p:before { content:"\00a7"; } alert("\247");
&uml; ¨ &#168; umlaut (dieresis) %A8 p:before { content:"\00a8"; } alert("\250");
&copy; © &#169; copyright sign %A9 p:before { content:"\00a9"; } alert("\251");
&ordf; ª &#170; ordinal indicator, feminine %AA p:before { content:"\00aa"; } alert("\252");
&laquo; « &#171; angle quotation mark, left %AB p:before { content:"\00ab"; } alert("\253");
&not; ¬ &#172; not sign %AC p:before { content:"\00ac"; } alert("\254");
&shy; ­ &#173; soft hyphen %AD p:before { content:"\00ad"; } alert("\255");
&reg; ® &#174; registered sign %AE p:before { content:"\00ae"; } alert("\256");
&macr; ¯ &#175; macron %AF p:before { content:"\00af"; } alert("\257");
&deg; ° &#176; degree sign %B0 p:before { content:"\00b0"; } alert("\260");
&plusmn; ± &#177; plus-or-minus sign %B1 p:before { content:"\00b1"; } alert("\261");
&sup2; ² &#178; superscript two %B2 p:before { content:"\00b2"; } alert("\262");
&sup3; ³ &#179; superscript three %B3 p:before { content:"\00b3"; } alert("\263");
&acute; ´ &#180; acute accent %B4 p:before { content:"\00b4"; } alert("\264");
&micro; µ &#181; micro sign %B5 p:before { content:"\00b5"; } alert("\265");
&para; &#182; pilcrow (paragraph sign) %B6 p:before { content:"\00b6"; } alert("\266");
&middot; · &#183; middle dot %B7 p:before { content:"\00b7"; } alert("\267");
&cedil; ¸ &#184; cedilla %B8 p:before { content:"\00b8"; } alert("\270");
&sup1; ¹ &#185; superscript one %B9 p:before { content:"\00b9"; } alert("\271");
&ordm; º &#186; ordinal indicator, masculine %BA p:before { content:"\00ba"; } alert("\272");
&raquo; » &#187; angle quotation mark, right %BB p:before { content:"\00bb"; } alert("\273");
&frac14; ¼ &#188; fraction one-quarter %BC p:before { content:"\00bc"; } alert("\274");
&frac12; ½ &#189; fraction one-half %BD p:before { content:"\00bd"; } alert("\275");
&frac34; ¾ &#190; fraction three-quarters %BE p:before { content:"\00be"; } alert("\276");
&iquest; ¿ &#191; inverted question mark %BF p:before { content:"\00bf"; } alert("\277");
&Agrave; À &#192; capital A, grave accent %C0 p:before { content:"\00c0"; } alert("\300");
&Aacute; Á &#193; capital A, acute accent %C1 p:before { content:"\00c1"; } alert("\301");
&Acirc; Â &#194; capital A, circumflex accent %C2 p:before { content:"\00c2"; } alert("\302");
&Atilde; Ã &#195; capital A, tilde %C3 p:before { content:"\00c3"; } alert("\303");
&Auml; Ä &#196; capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark %C4 p:before { content:"\00c4"; } alert("\304");
&Aring; Å &#197; capital A, ring %C5 p:before { content:"\00c5"; } alert("\305");
&AElig; Æ &#198; capital AE diphthong (ligature) %C6 p:before { content:"\00c6"; } alert("\306");
&Ccedil; Ç &#199; capital C, cedilla %C7 p:before { content:"\00c7"; } alert("\307");
&Egrave; È &#200; capital E, grave accent %C8 p:before { content:"\00c8"; } alert("\310");
&Eacute; É &#201; capital E, acute accent %C9 p:before { content:"\00c9"; } alert("\311");
&Ecirc; Ê &#202; capital E, circumflex accent %CA p:before { content:"\00ca"; } alert("\312");
&Euml; Ë &#203; capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark %CB p:before { content:"\00cb"; } alert("\313");
&Igrave; Ì &#204; capital I, grave accent %CC p:before { content:"\00cc"; } alert("\314");
&Iacute; Í &#205; capital I, acute accent %CD p:before { content:"\00cd"; } alert("\315");
&Icirc; Î &#206; capital I, circumflex accent %CE p:before { content:"\00ce"; } alert("\316");
&Iuml; Ï &#207; capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark %CF p:before { content:"\00cf"; } alert("\317");
&ETH; Ð &#208; capital Eth, Icelandic %D0 p:before { content:"\00d0"; } alert("\320");
&Ntilde; Ñ &#209; capital N, tilde %D1 p:before { content:"\00d1"; } alert("\321");
&Ograve; Ò &#210; capital O, grave accent %D2 p:before { content:"\00d2"; } alert("\322");
&Oacute; Ó &#211; capital O, acute accent %D3 p:before { content:"\00d3"; } alert("\323");
&Ocirc; Ô &#212; capital O, circumflex accent %D4 p:before { content:"\00d4"; } alert("\324");
&Otilde; Õ &#213; capital O, tilde %D5 p:before { content:"\00d5"; } alert("\325");
&Ouml; Ö &#214; capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark %D6 p:before { content:"\00d6"; } alert("\326");
&times; × &#215; multiply sign %D7 p:before { content:"\00d7"; } alert("\327");
&Oslash; Ø &#216;

capital O, slash

%D8 p:before { content:"\00d8"; } alert("\330");
&Ugrave; Ù &#217; capital U, grave accent %D9 p:before { content:"\00d9"; } alert("\331");
&Uacute; Ú &#218; capital U, acute accent %DA p:before { content:"\00da"; } alert("\332");
&Ucirc; Û &#219; capital U, circumflex accent %DB p:before { content:"\00db"; } alert("\333");
&Uuml; Ü &#220; capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark %DC p:before { content:"\00dc"; } alert("\334");
&Yacute; Ý &#221; capital Y, acute accent %DD p:before { content:"\00dd"; } alert("\335");
&THORN; Þ &#222; capital THORN, Icelandic %DE p:before { content:"\00de"; } alert("\336");
&szlig; ß &#223; small sharp s, German (sz ligature) %DF p:before { content:"\00df"; } alert("\337");
&agrave; à &#224; small a, grave accent %E0 p:before { content:"\00e0"; } alert("\340");
&aacute; á &#225; small a, acute accent %E1 p:before { content:"\00e1"; } alert("\341");
&acirc; â &#226; small a, circumflex accent %E2 p:before { content:"\00e2"; } alert("\342");
&atilde; ã &#227; small a, tilde %E3 p:before { content:"\00e3"; } alert("\343");
&auml; ä &#228; small a, dieresis or umlaut mark %E4 p:before { content:"\00e4"; } alert("\344");
&aring; å &#229; small a, ring %E5 p:before { content:"\00e5"; } alert("\345");
&aelig; æ &#230; small ae diphthong (ligature) %E6 p:before { content:"\00e6"; } alert("\346");
&ccedil; ç &#231; small c, cedilla %E7 p:before { content:"\00e7"; } alert("\347");
&egrave; è &#232; small e, grave accent %E8 p:before { content:"\00e8"; } alert("\350");
&eacute; é &#233; small e, acute accent %E9 p:before { content:"\00e9"; } alert("\351");
&ecirc; ê &#234; small e, circumflex accent %EA p:before { content:"\00ea"; } alert("\352");
&euml; ë &#235; small e, dieresis or umlaut mark %EB p:before { content:"\00eb"; } alert("\353");
&igrave; ì &#236; small i, grave accent %EC p:before { content:"\00ec"; } alert("\354");
&iacute; í &#237; small i, acute accent %ED p:before { content:"\00ed"; } alert("\355");
&icirc; î &#238; small i, circumflex accent %EE p:before { content:"\00ee"; } alert("\356");
&iuml; ï &#239; small i, dieresis or umlaut mark %EF p:before { content:"\00ef"; } alert("\357");
&eth; ð &#240; small eth, Icelandic %F0 p:before { content:"\00f0"; } alert("\360");
&ntilde; ñ &#241; small n, tilde %F1 p:before { content:"\00f1"; } alert("\361");
&ograve; ò &#242; small o, grave accent %F2 p:before { content:"\00f2"; } alert("\362");
&oacute; ó &#243; small o, acute accent %F3 p:before { content:"\00f3"; } alert("\363");
&ocirc; ô &#244; small o, circumflex accent %F4 p:before { content:"\00f4"; } alert("\364");
&otilde; õ &#245; small o, tilde %F5 p:before { content:"\00f5"; } alert("\365");
&ouml; ö &#246; small o, dieresis or umlaut mark %F6 p:before { content:"\00f6"; } alert("\366");
&divide; ÷ &#247; divide sign %F7 p:before { content:"\00f7"; } alert("\367");
&oslash; ø &#248; small o, slash %F8 p:before { content:"\00f8"; } alert("\370");
&ugrave; ù &#249; small u, grave accent %F9 p:before { content:"\00f9"; } alert("\371");
&uacute; ú &#250; small u, acute accent %FA p:before { content:"\00fa"; } alert("\372");
&ucirc; û &#251; small u, circumflex accent %FB p:before { content:"\00fb"; } alert("\373");
&uuml; ü &#252; small u, dieresis or umlaut mark %FC p:before { content:"\00fc"; } alert("\374");
&yacute; ý &#253; small y, acute accent %FD p:before { content:"\00fd"; } alert("\375");
&thorn; þ &#254; small thorn, Icelandic %FE p:before { content:"\00fe"; } alert("\376");
&yuml; ÿ &#255; small y, dieresis or umlaut mark %FF p:before { content:"\00ff"; } alert("\377");

Latin Extended-A

&OElig; Π&#338; latin capital ligature oe u+0152 ISOlat2 p:before { content:"\0152"; } alert("\u0152");
&oelig; œ &#339; latin small ligature oe
(ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages)
u+0153 ISOlat2 p:before { content:"\0153"; } alert("\u0153");
&Scaron; Š &#352; latin capital letter s with caron u+0160 ISOlat2 p:before { content:"\0160"; } alert("\u0160");
&scaron; š &#353; latin small letter s with caron u+0161 ISOlat2 p:before { content:"\0161"; } alert("\u0161");
&Yuml; Ÿ &#376; latin capital letter y with diaeresis u+0178 ISOlat2 p:before { content:"\0178"; } alert("\u0178");

Latin Extended-B

&fnof; ƒ &#402; latin small f with hook, a.k.a. function, a.k.a. florin u+0192 ISOtech p:before { content:"\0192"; } alert("\u0192");

Spacing Modifier Letters

&circ; ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent u+02C6 ISOpub p:before { content:"\02c6"; } alert("\u02c6");
&tilde; ˜ small tilde u+02DC ISOdia p:before { content:"\02dc"; } alert("\u02dc");


&Alpha; Α &#913; greek capital letter alpha u+0391 p:before { content:"\0391"; } alert("\u0391");
&Beta; Β &#914; greek capital letter beta u+0392 p:before { content:"\0392"; } alert("\u0392");
&Gamma; Γ &#915; greek capital letter gamma u+0393 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\0393"; } alert("\u0395");
&Delta; Δ &#916; greek capital letter delta u+0394 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\0394"; } alert("\u0394");
&Epsilon; Ε &#917; greek capital letter epsilon u+0395 p:before { content:"\0395"; } alert("\u0395");
&Zeta; Ζ &#918; greek capital letter zeta u+0396 p:before { content:"\0396"; } alert("\u0396");
&Eta ; Η &#919; greek capital letter eta u+0397 p:before { content:"\0397"; } alert("\u0397");
&Theta; Θ &#920; greek capital letter theta u+0398 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\0398"; } alert("\u0398");
&Iota; Ι &#921; greek capital letter iota u+0399 p:before { content:"\0399"; } alert("\u0399");
&Kappa; Κ &#922; greek capital letter kappa u+039A p:before { content:"\039a"; } alert("\u039a");
&Lambda; Λ &#923; greek capital letter lambda u+039B ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\039b"; } alert("\u039b");
&Mu ; Μ &#924; greek capital letter mu u+039C p:before { content:"\039c"; } alert("\u039c");
&Nu ; Ν &#925; greek capital letter nu u+039D p:before { content:"\039d"; } alert("\u039D");
&Xi ; Ξ &#926; greek capital letter xi u+039E ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\039e"; } alert("\u039e");
&Omicron; Ο &#927; greek capital letter omicron u+039F p:before { content:"\039f"; } alert("\u039f");
&Pi ; Π &#928; greek capital letter pi u+03A0 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a0"; } alert("\u03a0");
&Rho ; Ρ &#929; greek capital letter rho u+03A1 p:before { content:"\03a1"; } alert("\u03a1");
there is no Sigmaf, and no u+03A2 character either)
&Sigma; Σ &#931; greek capital letter sigma u+03A3 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a3"; } alert("\u03A3");
&Tau ; Τ &#932; greek capital letter tau u+03A4 p:before { content:"\03a4"; } alert("\u03A4");
&Upsilon; Υ &#933; greek capital letter upsilon u+03A5 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a5"; } alert("\u03A5");
&Phi ; Φ &#934; greek capital letter phi u+03A6 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a6"; } alert("\u03A6");
&Chi ; Χ &#935; greek capital letter chi u+03A7 p:before { content:"\03a7"; } alert("\u03A7");
&Psi ; Ψ &#936; greek capital letter psi u+03A8 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a8"; } alert("\u03A8");
&Omega; Ω &#937; greek capital letter omega u+03A9 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03a9"; } alert("\u03A9");
&alpha; α &#945; greek small letter alpha u+03B1 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b1"; } alert("\u03b1");
&beta; β &#946; greek small letter beta u+03B2 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b2"; } alert("\u03b2");
&gamma; γ &#947; greek small letter gamma u+03B3 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b3"; } alert("\u03b3");
&delta; δ &#948; greek small letter delta u+03B4 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b4"; } alert("\u03b4");
&epsilon; ε &#949; greek small letter epsilon u+03B5 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b5"; } alert("\u03b5");
&zeta; ζ &#950; greek small letter zeta u+03B6 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b6"; } alert("\u03b6");
&eta ; η &#951; greek small letter eta u+03B7 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b7"; } alert("\u03b7");
&theta; θ &#952; greek small letter theta u+03B8 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b8"; } alert("\u03b8");
&iota; ι &#953; greek small letter iota u+03B9 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03b9"; } alert("\u03b9");
&kappa; κ &#954; greek small letter kappa u+03BA ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03ba"; } alert("\u03ba");
&lambda; λ &#955; greek small letter lambda u+03BB ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03bb"; } alert("\u03bb");
&mu ; μ &#956; greek small letter mu u+03BC ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03bc"; } alert("\u03bc");
&nu ; ν &#957; greek small letter nu u+03BD ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03bd"; } alert("\u03bd");
&xi ; ξ &#958; greek small letter xi u+03BE ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03be"; } alert("\u03be");
&omicron; ο &#959; greek small letter omicron u+03BF NEW p:before { content:"\03bf"; } alert("\u03bf");
&pi ; π &#960; greek small letter pi u+03C0 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03c0"; } alert("\u03c0");
&rho ; ρ &#961; greek small letter rho u+03C1 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03c1"; } alert("\u03c1");
&sigmaf; ς &#962; greek small letter final sigma u+03C2 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C2"; } alert("\u03c2");
&sigma; σ &#963; greek small letter sigma u+03C3 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C3"; } alert("\u03c3");
&tau ; τ &#964; greek small letter tau u+03C4 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C4"; } alert("\u03c4");
&upsilon; υ &#965; greek small letter upsilon u+03C5 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C5"; } alert("\u03c5");
&phi ; φ &#966; greek small letter phi u+03C6 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C6"; } alert("\03c6");
&chi ; χ &#967; greek small letter chi u+03C7 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C7"; } alert("\u03c7");
&psi ; ψ &#968; greek small letter psi u+03C8 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C8"; } alert("\u03c8");
&omega; ω &#969; greek small letter omega u+03C9 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03C9"; } alert("\u03c9");
&thetasym; ϑ &#977; greek small letter theta symbol u+03D1 NEW p:before { content:"\03D1"; } alert("\u03D1");
&upsih; ϒ &#978; greek upsilon with hook symbol u+03D2 NEW p:before { content:"\03D2"; } alert("\u03D2");
&piv ; ϖ &#982; greek pi symbol u+03D6 ISOgrk3 p:before { content:"\03D6"; } alert("\u03D6");


&ensp; &#8194; en space u+2002 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2002";} alert("\u2002");
&emsp; &#8195; em space u+2003 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2003";} alert("\u2003");
&thinsp; &#8201; thin space u+2009 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2009";} alert("\u2009");
&zwnj; &#8204; zero width non-joiner u+200C NEW RFC 2070 p:before { content:"\200C";} alert("\u200C");
&zwj; &#8205; zero width joiner u+200D NEW RFC 2070 p:before { content:"\200D";} alert("\u200d");
&lrm; &#8206; left-to-right mark u+200E NEW RFC 2070 p:before { content:"\200E";} alert("\u200e");
&rlm; &#8207; right-to-left mark u+200F NEW RFC 2070 p:before { content:"\200F";} alert("\u200f");
&ndash; &#8211; en dash u+2013 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2013";} alert("\u2013");
&mdash; &#8212; em dash u+2014 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2014";} alert("\u2014");
&lsquo; &#8216; left single quotation mark u+2018 ISOnum p:before { content:"\2018";} alert("\u2018");
&rsquo; &#8217; right single quotation mark u+2019 ISOnum p:before { content:"\2019";} alert("\u2019");
&sbquo; &#8218; single low-9 quotation mark u+201A NEW p:before { content:"\201A";} alert("\u201a");
&ldquo; &#8220; left double quotation mark u+201C ISOnum p:before { content:"\201C";} alert("\u201c");
&rdquo; &#8221; right double quotation mark u+201D ISOnum p:before { content:"\201D";} alert("\u201d");
&bdquo; &#8222; double low-9 quotation mark u+201E NEW p:before { content:"\201E";} alert("\u201e");
&dagger; &#8224; dagger u+2020 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2020";} alert("\u2020");
&Dagger; &#8225; double dagger u+2021 ISOpub p:before { content:"\2021";} alert("\u2021");
&permil; &#8240; per mille sign u+2030 ISOtech p:before { content:"\2030";} alert("\u2030");
&lsaquo; &#8249; single left-pointing angle quotation mark
(lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardised)
u+2039 ISO proposed p:before { content:"\2039";} alert("\u2039");
&rsaquo; &#8250; single right-pointing angle quotation mark
rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardised
u+203A ISO proposed p:before { content:"\203A";} alert("\u203a");

General Punctuation

&bull; &#8226; bullet, a.k.a. black small circle
bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator — u+2219
u+2022 ISOpub alert("\u2219");
&hellip; &#8230; horizontal ellipsis, a.k.a. three dot leader u+2026 ISOpub alert("\u2026");
&prime; &#8242; prime, a.k.a. minutes, a.k.a. feet u+2032 ISOtech alert("\u2032");
&Prime; &#8243; double prime, a.k.a. seconds, a.k.a. inches u+2033 ISOtech alert("\u2033");
&oline; &#8254; overline, a.k.a. spacing overscore u+203E NEW alert("\u203e");
&frasl; &#8260; fraction slash u+2044 NEW alert("\u8260");

Letterlike Symbols

&weierp; &#8472; script capital P, a.k.a. power set, a.k.a. Weierstrass p u+2118 ISOamso alert("\u2118");
&image; &#8465; blackletter capital I, a.k.a. imaginary part u+2111 ISOamso alert("\u2111");
&real; &#8476; blackletter capital R, a.k.a. real part symbol u+211C ISOamso alert("\u211c");
&trade; &#8482; trade mark sign u+2122 ISOnum alert("\u2122");
&alefsym; &#8501; alef symbol, a.k.a. first transfinite cardinal
alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef — u+05D0 although the same glyph
could be used to depict both characters
u+2135 NEW alert("\u");


&larr; &#8592; leftwards arrow u+2190 ISOnum alert("\u2190");
&uarr; &#8593; upwards arrow u+2191 ISOnum alert("\u2191");
&rarr; &#8594; rightwards arrow u+2192 ISOnum alert("\u2192");
&darr; &#8595; downwards arrow u+2193 ISOnum alert("\u2193");
&harr; &#8596; left right arrow u+2194 ISOamsa alert("\u2194");
&crarr; &#8629; downwards arrow with corner leftwards, a.k.a. carriage return u+21B5 NEW alert("\u21b5");
&lArr; &#8656; leftwards double arrow
can be used for ‘is implied by’
u+21D0 ISOtech alert("\u21d0");
&uArr; &#8657; upwards double arrow u+21D1 ISOamsa alert("\u21d1");
&rArr; &#8658; rightwards double arrow u+21D2 ISOtech alert("\u21d2");
&dArr; &#8659; downwards double arrow u+21D3 ISOamsa alert("\ud1d3");
&hArr; &#8660; left right double arrow u+21D4 ISOamsa alert("\u21d4");

Mathematical Operators

&forall; &#8704; for all u+2200 ISOtech alert("\u2200");
&part; &#8706; partial differential u+2202 ISOtech alert("\u2202");
&exist; &#8707; there exists u+2203 ISOtech alert("\u2203");
&empty; &#8709; empty set, a.k.a. null set, a.k.a. diameter u+2205 ISOamso alert("\u2205");
&nabla; &#8711; nabla, a.k.a. backward difference u+2207 ISOtech alert("\u2207");
&isin; &#8712; element of u+2208 ISOtech alert("\u2208");
&notin; &#8713; not an element of u+2209 ISOtech alert("\u2209");
&ni ; &#8715; contains as member u+220B ISOtech alert("\u220b");
&prod; &#8719; n-ary product, a.k.a. product sign
prod is NOT the same character as u+03A0 ‘greek capital letter pi’ though the same
glyph might be used for both
u+220F ISOamsb alert("\u03a0");
&sum ; &#8721; n-ary sumation
sum is NOT the same character as u+03A3 ‘greek capital letter sigma’ though the same
glyph might be used for both
u+2211 ISOamsb alert("\u03a3");
&minus; &#8722; minus sign u+2212 ISOtech alert("\u2212");
&lowast; &#8727; asterisk operator u+2217 ISOtech alert("\u2217");
&radic; &#8730; square root, a.k.a. radical sign u+221A ISOtech alert("\u221a");
&prop; &#8733; proportional to u+221D ISOtech alert("\u221d");
&infin; &#8734; infinity u+221E ISOtech alert("\u221e");
&ang ; &#8736; angle u+2220 ISOamso alert("\u2220");
&and ; &#8869; logical and, a.k.a. wedge u+2227 ISOtech alert("\u2227");
&or ; &#8870; logical or, a.k.a. vee u+2228 ISOtech alert("\u2228");
&cap ; &#8745; intersection, a.k.a. cap u+2229 ISOtech alert("\u2229");
&cup ; &#8746; union, a.k.a. cup u+222A ISOtech alert("\u222a");
&int ; &#8747; integral u+222B ISOtech alert("\u222b");
&there4; &#8756; therefore u+2234 ISOtech alert("\u2234");
&sim ; &#8764; tilde operator, a.k.a. varies with,
similar to tilde operator, but is NOT the same character as the tilde u+007E,
although the same glyph might be used to represent both
u+223C ISOtech alert("\u223c");
&cong; &#8773; approximately equal to u+2245 ISOtech alert("\u2245");
&asymp; &#8776; almost equal to, a.k.a. asymptotic to u+2248 ISOamsr alert("\u2248");
&ne ; &#8800; not equal to u+2260 ISOtech alert("\u2260");
&equiv; &#8801; identical to u+2261 ISOtech alert("\u2261");
&le ; &#8804; less-than or equal to u+2264 ISOtech alert("\u2264");
&ge ; &#8805; greater-than or equal to u+2265 ISOtech alert("\u2265");
&sub ; &#8834; subset of u+2282 ISOtech alert("\u2282");
&sup ; &#8835; superset of
note that nsup, ‘not a superset of u+2283′ is not covered by the Symbol font
encoding and is not included.
u+2283 ISOtech alert("\u2283");
&nsub; &#8836; not a subset of u+2284 ISOamsn alert("\u2284");
&sube; &#8838; subset of or equal to u+2286 ISOtech alert("\u2286");
&supe; &#8839; superset of or equal to u+2287 ISOtech alert("\u2287");
&oplus; &#8853; circled plus, a.k.a. direct sum u+2295 ISOamsb alert("\u2295");
&otimes; &#8855; circled times, a.k.a. vector product u+2297 ISOamsb alert("\u2297");
&perp; &#8869; up tack, a.k.a. orthogonal to, a.k.a. perpendicular u+22A5 ISOtech alert("\u22a5");
&sdot; &#8901; dot operator
dot operator is NOT the same character as u+00B7 middle dot
u+22C5 ISOamsb alert("\u22c5");

Miscellaneous Technical

&lceil; &#8968; left ceiling, a.k.a. apl upstile u+2308, ISOamsc alert("\u2308");
&rceil; &#8969; right ceiling u+2309, ISOamsc alert("\u2309");
&lfloor; &#8970; left floor, a.k.a. apl downstile u+230A, ISOamsc alert("\u230a");
&rfloor; &#8971; right floor u+230B, ISOamsc alert("\u230b");
&lang; &#9001; left-pointing angle bracket, a.k.a. bra
lang is NOT the same character as u+003C ‘less than’
or u+2039 ’single left-pointing angle quotation mark’
u+2329 ISOtech alert("\u2329");
&rang; &#9002; right-pointing angle bracket, a.k.a. ket
rang is NOT the same character as u+003E ‘greater than’
or u+203A ’single right-pointing angle quotation mark’
u+232A ISOtech alert("\u232a");

Geometric Shapes

&loz ; &#9674; lozenge u+25CA ISOpub alert("\u25ca");

Miscellaneous Symbols

&spades; &#9824; black spade suit u+2660 ISOpub alert("\u2660");
&clubs; &#9827; black club suit, a.k.a. shamrock u+2663 ISOpub alert("\u2663");
&hearts; &#9829; black heart suit, a.k.a. valentine u+2665 ISOpub alert("\u2665");
&diams; &#9830; black diamond suit u+2666 ISOpub alert("\u2666");