The possibilities of the color-adjust property

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Eric Bailey on

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The Open Web continues to show up in places we would have never originally expected to find it: our phones, televisions, watches, books, video game consoles, fast food menus, gas pumps, elevators, cars—even our refrigerators.

By not making too many or too strict assumptions about how the web should be used, it remains flexible and adaptable. These qualities have allowed it to outperform closed technologies like Flash and Silverlight.

With the web’s growth comes new features to better accommodate its new form factors and use cases. One feature I’m excited about is the color-adjust property, proposed in CSS Color Module Level 4. It is an acknowledgement that the web will continue to show up on devices that have less-than-stellar displays.

There are two values for color-adjust: economy and exact. A value of exact tells the browser it shouldn’t make adjustments to the colors declared in the stylesheet:

.card { 
  background-color: #98b3c7;
  border-bottom: 0.25rem solid #7c92a3;
  color: #f3f3f3;
  color-adjust: exact;

The color-adjust: exact; declaration in this example forces the browser to render all colors as accurately as possible on anything with a class of card applied to it. Accurate meaning being as close as possible based on the host device’s best ability.

The description for the economy value in the specification reads as, “The user agent should make adjustments to the page’s styling as it deems necessary and prudent for the output device.” It places trust in the browser’s hands, allowing it to make adjustments to color values as it sees fit.

Best ability

Handing control over to a browser might seem a little scary at first. As an industry, we’re really great at bikeshedding the heck out of color systems. And that’s a great thing! The use of color, including proper contrast ratios, is an incredibly important aspect of design, and can oftentimes make or break a product.

But we need to understand that our platonically ideal design might not be able to be experienced in the real world as intended. Not everyone owns a device that outputs to a Retina display with a luxurious DCI-P3 color space; nor do they always have perfect vision or ideal lighting conditions. In these kinds of circumstances, it’s better to bend, not break.

We now live in a Mobile, Small, Portrait, Slow, Interlace, Monochrome, Coarse, Non-Hover, First world. Limited color displays aren’t as rare as you think, and are probably only going to get more commonplace as time goes on. I’d especially like to call attention to the rise of internet use by low income populations and emerging markets. With that comes cheaper devices with lower-quality displays.

Browser support

At the time of this article’s publishing, color-adjust has been supported since Firefox 48 (and Android Firefox 60):

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.



Mobile / Tablet

Android ChromeAndroid FirefoxAndroidiOS Safari

Chrome and Safari, both WebKit browsers, require a vendor-prefixed declaration of -webkit-print-color-adjust. Curiously, -webkit-print signals that their implementation of this property is only intended for print. While the W3C documentation does mention use cases for printing, it is phrased in such a way as to not be limited to it.

People still print webpages! Paper doesn’t require a data plan, nor does its connection drop when you go underground. Just yesterday, I saw someone on the train who was using a collection of printed sites to study for their next exam. And here’s your galaxy brain moment: printed pages are just limited color displays.

I’d also be remiss if I didn’t mention situations where print styles are missing or poorly-authored, potentially forcing a printer to waste ink in an attempt to do what the stylesheet asks of it. Printer ink is hideously expensive—minding this does your (or your IT department’s) budget a solid.

Potential uses

Before we get any further, I want to state the following is all personal theorizing based off the phrasing in the W3C specification—targeting, but not limited to printing.

I think color-adjust could be one of those properties that could find a home explicitly declared in the body selector, where it can best take advantage of the Cascade:

body {
  color-adjust: economy;

This declaration says, “Every time I declare color in this website, use the values I specify. If you can’t, that’s cool—do what you think is best.” That’s a lot better than the browser trying to literally interpret styling instructions at all cost, potentially rendering the page as completely illegible.

You could declare color-adjust in a more specific way, say nested in a @supports at-rule inside of a print media query, but that’s unnecessary extra work. It would fail to accommodate things like High Contrast Mode and the upcoming color gamut media feature. Better to embrace the unknown and cast a wide net.

I’m also very curious to see how color-adjust could work in conjunction with other browser capabilities, say the Ambient Light Sensor API (RIP Battery Status API). It’d be neat if there were opportunities to experiment with other specialized display modes—macOS’ Night Shift, Increased Contrast, Grayscale, and Reduce Transparency options all come to mind.

A note about accessibility

I’m wondering if software (browser preference toggle or extension, bookmarklet, etc.) could be written to override what the device’s hardware reports itself as being. Much like User Agent spoofing, it could “trick” a browser into thinking it has a limited color display, using economy to force better contrast between text and background color. This would be a lot like some browser’s reading modes, only page layout would be better preserved.

That being said, I don’t think color-adjust is a silver bullet for all color-related accessibility concerns. We can’t always know the device and context our websites and web apps will show up in, including what colors color-adjust would ultimately render as. Because of this, it’s still important to mind your color contrast ratios.

Bending, not breaking

color-adjust feels like a natural extension of Jen Simmons’ Intrinsic Web Design: fluid and squishy UI, proportional sizing, media queries as needed, and simple declarations that do the heavy lifting.

The beauty of the CSS Cascade means you can gracefully create intent, then adjust as needed. color-adjust‘s documentation specifically mentions a situation where it could be useful to ensure a table’s zebra striping is is retained when printed to make it easier to read. Such a tweak can be scoped to a single selector, without having to spend time undoing it for every other component.

body {
  color-adjust: economy;

tr {
  color-adjust: exact;

The beauty of CSS’ fault tolerance means browsers that don’t understand this declaration will ignore it and continue parsing the rest of of the stylesheet. Browsers that do support it can take advantage of it, without any complicated build tool configuration or dangerous User Agent sniffing.

It is important to make our web sites and web apps design adapt to the user’s environment and circumstances, and not the other way around. Good user experiences meet the user where they are, not where we hope they’ll be.