Theming With Variables: Globals and Locals

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Andrés Galante on (Updated on )

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Cliff Pyles contributed to this post.

Setting CSS variables to theme a design system can be tricky: if they are too scoped, the system will lose consistency. If they are too global, you lose granularity.

Maybe we can fix both issues. I’d like to try to boil design system variables down to two types: Global and Component variables. Global variables will give us consistency across components. Component variables will give us granularity and isolation. Let me show you how to do it by taking a fairly simple component as an example.

Heads up, I’ll be using CSS variables for this article but the concept applies to preprocessor variables as well.

Global-scoped variables

System-wide variables are general concepts defined to keep consistency across your components.

Starting with an .alert component as an example, let’s say we want to keep consistency for all of our spaces on margins and paddings. We can first define global spacers:

:root {
  --spacer-sm: .5rem;
  --spacer-md: 1rem;
  --spacer-lg: 2rem;

And then use on our components:

/* Defines the btn component */
.btn {
  padding: var(--spacer-sm) var(--spacer-md);

/* Defines the alert component */
.alert {
  padding: var(--spacer-sm) var(--spacer-md);

The main benefits of this approach are:

  • It generates a single source of truth for spacers, and a single point for the author using our system to customize it.
  • It achieves consistency since every component follows the same spacing.
  • It produces a common point of reference for designers and developers to work from. As long as the designers follow the same spacing restrictions, the translation to code is seamless.

But it also presents a few problems:

  • The system loses modularity by generating a dependency tree. Since components depend on global variables, they are no longer isolated.
  • It doesn’t allow authors to customize a single component without overwriting the CSS. For example, to change the padding of the alert without generating a system wide shift, they’d have to overwrite the alert component:
.alert {
  padding-left: 1rem;
  padding-right: 1rem;

Chris Coyier explains the idea of theming with global variables using custom elements in this article.

Component-scoped variables

As Robin Rendle explain in his article, component variables are scoped to each module. If we generate the alert with these variables, we’d get:

.alert {
  --alert-color: #222;
  color: var(--alert-color);
  border-color: var(--alert-color);

The main advantages are:

  • It creates a modular system with isolated components.
  • Authors get granular control over components without overwriting them. They’d just redefine the value of the variable.

There is no way to keep consistency across components or to make a system-wide change following this method.

Let’s see how we can get the best of both worlds!

The two-tier theming system

The solution is a two-layer theming system where global variables always inform component variables. Each one of those layers follow a set of very specific rules.

First tier: Global variables

The main reason to have global variables is to maintain consistency, and they adhere to these rules:

  • They are prefixed with the word global and follow the formula --global--concept--modifier--state--PropertyCamelCase
    • a concept is something like a spacer or main-title
    • a state is something like hover, or expanded
    • a modifier is something like sm, or lg
    • and a PropertyCamelCase is something like BackgroundColor or FontSize
  • They are concepts, never tied to an element or component
    • this is wrong: --global-h1-font-size
    • this is right: --global--main-title--FontSize

For example, a global variable setup would look like:

:root {
  /* --global--concept--size */
  --global--spacer--sm: .5rem;
  --global--spacer--md: 1rem;
  --global--spacer--lg: 2rem;

  /* --global--concept--PropertyCamelCase */
  --global--main-title--FontSize: 2rem;
  --global--secondary-title--FontSize: 1.8rem;
  --global--body--FontSize: 1rem;

  /* --global--state--PropertyCamelCase */
  --global--hover--BackgroundColor: #ccc;

Second tier: Component variables

The second layer is scoped to theme-able component properties and follow these rules:

  • Assuming we are writing BEM, they follow this formula: --block__element--modifier--state--PropertyCamelCase
    • The block__element--modifier the selector name is something like alert__actions or alert--primary
    • a state is something like hover or active
    • and if you are not writing BEM class names the same principles apply, just replace the block__element--modifier with your classname
  • The value of component scoped variables is always defined by a global variable
  • A component variable always has a default value as a fallback in case the component doesn’t have the dependency on the global variables

For example:

.alert {
  /* Component scoped variables are always defined by global variables */
  --alert--Padding: var(--global--spacer--md);
  --alert--primary--BackgroundColor: var(--global--primary-color);
  --alert__title--FontSize: var(--global--secondary-title--FontSize);

  /* --block--PropertyCamelCase */
  padding: var(--alert--Padding, 1rem); /* Sets the fallback to 1rem. */

/* --block--state--PropertyCamelCase */
.alert--primary {
  background-color: var(--alert--primary--BackgroundColor, #ccc);

/* --block__element--PropertyCamelCase */
.alert__title {
  font-size: var(--alert__title--FontSize, 1.8rem);

You’ll notice that we are defining locally-scoped variables with global variables. This is key for the system to work since it allows authors to theme the system as a whole. For example, if they want to change the primary color across all components they just need to redefine --global--primary-color.

On the other hand, each component variable has a default value so a component can stand on its own, it doesn’t depend on anything and authors can use it in isolation.

This setup allows for consistency across components, it generates a common language between designers and developers since we can set the same global variables in Sketch as bumpers for designers, and it gives granular control to authors.

Why does this system work?

In an ideal world, we as creators of a design system, expect “authors” or users of our system to implement it without modifications, but of course, the world is not ideal, and that never happens.

If we allow authors to easily theme the system without having to overwrite CSS, we’ll not only make their lives easier but also reduce the risk of breaking modules. At the end of the day, a maintainable system is a good system.

The two-tier theming system generates modular and isolated components where authors have the possibility to customize them at a global and at a component level. For example:

:root {
  /* Changes the secondary title size across the system */
  --global--secondary-title--FontSize: 2rem;

.alert {
  /* Changes the padding on the alert only */
  --alert--Padding: 3rem;

What values should become variables?

CSS variables open windows to the code. The more we allow authors in, the more vulnerable the system is to implementation issues.

To keep consistency, set global variables for everything except layout values; you wouldn’t want authors to break the layout. And as a general rule, I’d recommend allowing access to components for everything you are willing to give support.

For the next version of PatternFly, an open-source design system I work on, we’ll allow customization for almost everything that’s not layout related: colors, spacer, typography treatment, shadows, etc.

Putting everything together

To show this concept in action I’ve created a CodePen project.

Global variables are nestled in _global-variables.scss. They are the base to keep consistency across the system and will allow the author to make global changes.

There are two components: alert and button. They are isolated and modular entities with scoped variables that allow authors to fine-tune components.

Remember that authors will use our system as a dependency in their project. By letting them modify the look and feel of the system through CSS variables, we are creating a solid code base that’s easier to maintain for the creators of the system and better to implement, modify, and upgrade to authors using the system.

For example, if an author wants to:

  • change the primary color to pink across the system;
  • change the danger color to orange just on the buttons;
  • and change the padding left to 2.3rem only on the alert…

…then this is how it’s done:

:root {
  /* Changes the primary color on both the alert and the button */
  --global--primary--Color: hotpink;

.button {
  /* Changes the danger color on the button only without affecting the alert */
  --button--danger--BackgroundColor: orange;
  --button--danger--hover--BorderColor: darkgoldenrod;

.alert {
  /* Changes the padding left on the alert only without affecting the button */
  --alert--PaddingLeft: 2.3rem;

The design system code base is intact and it’s just a better dependency to have.

I am aware that this is just one way to do it and I am sure there are other ways to successfully set up variables on a system. Please let me know what you think in the comments or send me a tweet. I’d love to hear about what you are doing and learn from it.