The :user-invalid is a CSS pseudo-class that is under proposal in the CSS Selectors Level 4 working draft that selects a form element based on whether the value—as entered by a user—is valid when checked against the what is specified as an accepted value in the HTML markup after the end user has interacted with the form beyond that input. In fact, :user-invalid has been called "The User Interaction Pseudo-class" because it is unique in identifying a user action in selecting an element.