The State of CSS Reflections

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Ana Tudor on (Updated on )

I recently saw this loader on CodePen, a pure CSS 3D rotating set of bars with a fading reflection. It’s done by using an element for each bar, then duplicating each and every one of these elements to create the reflection and finally adding a gradient cover to create the fading effect. Which sounds a bit like scratching behind your right ear with the toes of your left foot! Not to mention the gradient cover method for the fading effect doesn’t work with non-flat-color backgrounds. Isn’t there a better way to do this with CSS?

The answer is: “yes” and “no”. “Yes”, there are things that really could work and “no”, they aren’t really there yet. Sadly, while the code can be compacted a bit using a preprocessor (not much outside what can get generated in a loop though), the method of duplicating all bars for the reflection and using a gradient cover for the fading effect is still the best way of doing this if we don’t want to use canvas and we want the result to work across the current versions of all main browsers.

This article is going to explore the options we have today for creating the reflection, illustrate the “almost” solutions, how cross-browser issues cause pain and, finally, discuss my thoughts on what should be done.

Basic setup for the demo

Before we get to reflections, let’s see how we create, position and shade the bars as this part is common for all browsers.

Creating the bars

First of all, we create a wrapper .loader element with 10 .bar elements in it.

<div class='loader'>
  <div class='bar'></div>
  <!-- repeat to create 9 more bars -->

Writing the same thing multiple times is a pain, so it’s easier to use a preprocessor in such situations. We’re using Haml here, but any other one will do.

  - 10.times do

We position all these elements absolutely starting from the middle of the viewport. In most cases, we use top: 50%, but, in this case, it will be more convenient later if we use bottom: 50%:

div {
  position: absolute;
  bottom: 50%; left: 50%;

We decide on a width and a height for the bars and we give them a background just so that we can see them:

$bar-w: 1.25em;
$bar-h: 5 * $bar-w;

.bar {
  width: $bar-w; height: $bar-h;
  background: currentColor;

We want the bottom edge of the bars to coincide with the middle line of the viewport (separating the viewport into two equal parts) and we already have that as we’ve used bottom: 50%.

At this point, our bars are all stacked one on top of the other, their left edge being on the vertical line splitting the viewport into two equal halves (left and right) and their bottom edge being on the horizontal line splitting the viewport into two equal halves (top and bottom).

Positioning the bars

We need to position them such that the left edge of the first (leftmost) one and the right edge of the last (rightmost) one are at equal distance from the vertical line dividing the viewport into two equal halves. This distance is always half the number of bars ($n) times the bar width ($bar-w). The original demo uses vanilla CSS, but we’re going with Sass now to reduce the amount of code.

This means that, starting from the position that all the bars are in now, we need to shift the first bar to the left by .5 * $n * $bar-w. The left is the negative direction of the x axis, which means we need a - (minus) in front of it. So the margin-left value for the first bar is -.5 * $n * $bar-w.

The second bar (of 0-based index 1) is 1 bar width ($bar-w) to the right (in the positive direction of the x axis). So the margin-left value for this bar is -.5 * $n * $bar-w + $bar-w.

The third bar (of 0-based index 2) is 2 bar widths to the right (in the positive direction of the x axis). So the margin-left value for this bar is -.5 * $n * $bar-w + 2 * $bar-w.

The last bar (of 0-based index $n - 1) is $n - 1 bar widths to the right (in the positive direction of the x axis). So the margin-left value for this bar is -.5 * $n * $bar-w + ($n - 1) * $bar-w.

In general, if we consider $i to be the 0-based index of the current bar, then the margin-left value for this $i-th bar is -.5 * $n * $bar-w + $i * $bar-w, which can be compacted as ($i - .5 * $n) * $bar-w.

This allows us to position the bars with a Sass loop:

$n: 10;

@for $i from 0 to $n {
  .bar:nth-child(#{$i + 1}) {
  margin-left: ($i - .5 * $n) * $bar-w;

We also give them a box-shadow so we can see where a bar ends and the next one begins:

Shading the bars

The backgrounds of the bars go from a dark blue (#1e3f57) for the leftmost bar to a light blue (#63a6c1) for the rightmost one. This sounds like a job for the Sass mix() function! The first argument would be the light blue, the second one the dark blue and the third one (called the relative weight) the amount (in %) of the light blue to be included in the resulting mix.

For the first bar, this amount would be 0%0% of the light blue in the result, so this result would be just the dark blue.

For the last bar, the amount would be 100%100% of the light blue in the final result (which also means 0% of the darker shade), which would make the background light blue.

For the rest of the bars, we need intermediate values distributed evenly. If we have $n bars, the first bar is at 0% and the last one at 100%, then we need to split the interval between them into $n - 1 equal intervals.

In general, the relative weight for the bar of index $i is $i * 100% / ($n - 1), which means we need to add the following code:

$c: #63a6c1 #1e3f57; // 1st = light 2nd = dark

@for $i from 0 to $n {
  // list of mix() arguments for current bar
  $args: append($c, $i * 100% / ($n - 1));

  .bar:nth-child(#{$i + 1}) {
  background: mix($args...);

Now the bars look like in the original demo:

Exploring the options for the reflection

WebKit browsers: -webkit-box-reflect

Oh, no, a non-standard property! I don’t know why it didn’t become a standard. I hadn’t even heard of CSS when this first landed in Safari. But, for WebKit browsers, it does the job and it does it well! A lot of work went into it. It’s easy to use and it doesn’t break anything in non-supporting browsers, it just doesn’t display a reflection.

Let’s see how this works. The value it takes has three parts:

  • a direction, which can be any of the below, left, above, right keywords
  • an optional offset, which specifies how far from the edge of the element the reflection should start (this is a CSS length value)
  • an optional image mask (which can be a CSS gradient)

The following interactive demo illustrates this (click the direction, offset, gradient angle, stop alphas and offsets to change them):

Note that the linear-gradient() could have more stops or it could be replaced by a radial-gradient().

In our case, the first thing that springs to mind is to add this on the .loader element:

.loader {
  -webkit-box-reflect: below 0 linear-gradient(rgba(#fff), rgba(#fff, .7));

However, if we test this in a WebKit browser, we don’t see any reflection!

What is happening here? We have positioned all our elements absolutely and we haven’t set any explicit dimensions on our .loader element which contains the bars. This makes it a 0x0 element – zero width, zero height.

So let’s give it some explicit dimensions, a height equal to that of the bars ($bar-h) and a width big enough to contain all the bars ($n * $bar-w). We also temporarily give it a box-shadow just so we can see its boundaries clearly:

$loader-w: $n * $bar-w;

.loader {
  width: $loader-w; height: $bar-h;
  box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px red;

I prefer box-shadow over outline when highlighting the boundaries of an element as outline is inconsistent across browsers when children overflow their parents.

How box-shadow and outline behave in WebKit browsers and Edge (top) vs. Firefox (bottom) – outline gives different results when children overflow

The result of adding the above code can be seen live in WebKit browsers in the following Pen:

If you’re not on a WebKit browser, here’s what it looks like:

screenshot of the result in Chrome after explicitly sizing the .loader element

We can see the loader boundaries and we can see some reflection now, but things aren’t positioned correctly anymore. We want the loader to be dead in the middle horizontally, so we shift it to the left by half its width. We also want the bottom of the bars to coincide with the bottom of their parent, so we set bottom: 0 on them:

.loader { margin-left: -.5 * $loader-w; }

.bar { bottom: 0; }

This fixes the positioning issue. Here’s what it looks like now:

Firefox: element() + mask

Creating the reflection with element()

The element() function (still in the works, so far only implemented by Firefox with the -moz- prefix) gives us an image value that we should be able to use anywhere an actual image can be used (works for background, for border-image, but doesn’t seem to work as a value for pseudo content – see bug 1285811). It takes one argument which is the id selector of the element we want to see displayed as a background or a border-image. This allows us to do evil things like using images of controls as backgrounds. But it can also come in handy if we want to get an element reflected in Firefox.

One very important thing to know about the element() function is that it’s not recursive – we cannot create fractals by using elements as their own backgrounds. This makes it safe to use on a loader pseudo for creating the reflection so we don’t need to use an extra element.

Alright, let’s see how we do this. First of all, we give our loader element an id (let’s say the obvious loader). Moving on to the styling, we start from the exact same CSS we have in the final demo for the WebKit case. Then we add an ::after pseudo on the loader, absolutely positioned and covering it fully.

.loader::after {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0; right: 0; bottom: 0; left: 0;
  box-shadow: 0 0 0 2px currentColor;
  color: crimson;
  content: 'REFLECTION';

We’ve also set a few more temporary styles just so we can have a clear idea of this pseudo’s boundaries and orientation as in the final form, we want it to be upside down:

Now we need to reflect our ::after pseudo against its bottom edge. In order to do this, we use a scaleY() transform with a properly chosen transform-origin. The following interactive demo illustrates how directional scaling works for various scale factors and transform origins:

Note that the values for the scale factors and the transform-origin can go beyond the limits imposed by this demo.

In our case, we need a scaleY(-1) and a transform-origin on the line of the bottom edge of the ::after pseudo:

reflect an element down using a scaleY(-1) transform with an appropriate transform-origin

We add this to the code and we set the #loader as the background of its ::after pseudo using the element() function (with a prefix because that’s the only way it’s supported for now).

.loader::after {
  transform-origin: 0 100%;
  transform: scaleY(-1);
  background: -moz-element(#loader);

Note that we use .loader for the selector for specificity reasons and #loader as the argument of the element() function as that needs to be an id selector.

The result of adding the above code can be seen in the following Pen (Firefox-only):

For everyone reading this on other browsers, here’s a screenshot of what it looks like:

result of the reflection using the element() function in Firefox
Fading the reflection with mask

We fade the reflection the same way we did in the WebKit case: using a mask. In that case, the mask was a component of the -webkit-box-reflect value. In this case, we’re talking about the CSS mask property which takes an SVG reference for a value:

mask: url(#fader);

Our #fader element is an SVG mask element containing a rectangle.

  <mask id='fader' maskContentUnits='objectBoundingBox'>
    <rect width='1' height='1'/>

We can compact this a bit with Haml:

    %rect(width='1' height='1')

However, if we actually add the above to our code, our reflection disappears – this can be tested by viewing the following demo in Firefox:

This is because, by default, SVG shapes have a solid black fill, completely opaque and, at the same time, our mask is a luminance mask by default. So what we need to do in order to make the reflection fade is give the rectangle a fill that’s a reference to an SVG linearGradient.

%rect(width='1' height='1' fill='url(#grad)')

An SVG linearGradient is defined between two points specified by the x1, y1, x2 and y2 attributes. x1 and y1 are the coordinates of the start point (0%) of the gradient line, while x2 and y2 are the coordinates of the end point (100%) of this line. If these are missing, they are taken to be 0%, 0%, 100% and 0% respectively. These values describe the line from the top left (0% 0%) to the top right (100% 0%) of the element on which is applied (since the default value for gradientUnits is objectBoundingBox), meaning that, by default, the gradient goes from left to right.

But in our case, we want the gradient to go from top to bottom, so we change the value for x2 from 100% to 0% and the value for y2 from 0% to 100%. This makes the gradient vector go from the top left corner (0% 0%) to the bottom left (0% 100%) corner of the element on which it’s applied.

%linearGradient#grad(x2='0%' y2='100%')

Inside the linearGradient element, we have at least two stop elements. These have three specific attributes: offset, stop-color and stop-opacity.

  1. offset can take a % value, usually between 0% and 100%, just like in the case of CSS gradients. It can also take a number value, usually between 0 and 1.
  2. stop-color can take a keyword, hex, rgb(), rgba(), hsl() or hsla() value. In theory. In practice, Safari doesn’t support semitransparent values, so if we want semitransparency in our gradients, we should rely on the third attribute…
  3. stop-opacity. This takes a value between 0 (fully transparent) and 1 (fully opaque).

We need to keep in mind that the loader pseudo on which we’re applying the gradient mask has been reflected down via a scaleY(-1) transform. This means that the bottom of our gradient mask is visually up. So our gradient needs to go from completely transparent at the top (visually down) to an alpha of .7 at the bottom (visually up).

Since our gradient goes from top to bottom, the first stop is the fully transparent one.

%linearGradient#grad(x2='0%' y2='100%')
  %stop(offset='0' stop-color='#fff' stop-opacity='0')
  %stop(offset='1' stop-color='#fff' stop-opacity='.7')

Adding the linear gradient gives us the result we wanted in Firefox as well:

This Pen shows it live:

The SVG gradient problem

In our case, things are pretty simple because our masking gradient is vertical. But what about gradients that aren’t vertical, or horizontal or don’t go from one corner to the other? What if we want to have a gradient at a certain angle?

Well, SVG gradients also have an attribute called gradientTransform that can rotate the gradient line defined by the x1, y1, x2 and y2 attributes. One might think that’s an easy way to reproduce CSS gradients at an angle. But… it’s not that simple!

Let’s consider the case of a gradient from gold to crimson. To make things clearer, we give it a sharp transition between the two at 50%. Initially, we take the angle of the CSS version of this gradient to be 0deg. This means that the gradient goes from 0% at the bottom (gold) to 100% at the top (crimson). The CSS to create this gradient would be:

  linear-gradient(0deg, #e18728 50%, #d14730 0);

If there are things you don’t understand about how CSS linear gradients work, you can check out this excellent piece by Patrick Brosset.

The result can be seen in the Pen below:

To reproduce this with SVG, we create a gradient where y1 is 100%, y2 is 0% and x1 and x2 have the same value (we take it 0 for simplicity). This means the gradient line goes up vertically from the bottom to the top. We also set both stop offsets at 50%.

linearGradient#g(y1='100%' x2='0%' y2='0%'
                 gradientTransform='rotate(0 .5 .5)')
  stop(offset='50%' stop-color='#e18728')
  stop(offset='50%' stop-color='#d14730')

Editor’s note: I asked Ana why the switch to Jade here, and she says: I used Haml initially because I could avoid introducing a loop variable that I wasn’t using anywhere anyway. Later used Jade because it allows variables and computations.

This gradient is not yet rotated, so the value for its gradientTransform attribute is rotate(0 .5 .5) at this point. The second two values specify the coordinates of the point the gradient is rotated around, relative to the element that the gradient is applied on. 0 0 means the top left corner, 1 1 the bottom right corner and .5 .5 is exactly in the middle. This can be seen live in the following Pen:

If we want our gradient to go from left to right, then, in the case of the CSS gradient, we change the angle from 0deg to 90deg:

  linear-gradient(90deg, #e18728 50%, #d14730 0);

To get the same result with the SVG gradient, we change the value of the gradientTransform to rotate(90 .5 .5):

linearGradient#g(y1='100%' x2='0%' y2='0%'
                 gradientTransform='rotate(90 .5 .5)')
  // same stops as before

So far, so good. It doesn’t seem that much of a pain to replicate a CSS gradient with SVG. But let’s try other angles as well. In the interactive demo below, we have a CSS gradient on the left and the SVG version on the right. The purple line is the gradient line and it should be perpendicular onto the sharp separation line between the gold and the crimson. Dragging the slider changes the gradient angle for both the CSS and the SVG case. And we can see that something’s wrong for values that are not multiples of 90deg.

As the demo above shows, for values are not multiples of 90deg, we don’t get the same result. We would get the same result if the elements we set the gradients on were square. This means that we can set the gradient on a larger square element, which we then clip to our actual element. But having to do all this makes the method of creating fading reflections with element() and mask more complicated.

Edge: going all SVG?

Sadly, neither of the methods presented above works in Edge. So our only solution that would also work in Edge and wouldn’t involve manually duplicating each and every bar would be to just drop everything we have so far and recreate the loader with SVG. This has the advantage of being a crossbrowser method.

Basically, what we do is we create an SVG element with a viewBox such that its 0 0 point is dead in the middle. We define a bar that has its bottom edge on the x axis and its left edge on the y axis. We then clone (via the SVG use element) this bar as many times as necessary inside a #loader group. We handle the positioning of these clones the same way we did before.

- var bar_w = 125, bar_h = 5 * bar_w;
- var n = 10;
- var vb_w = n * bar_w;
- var vb_h = 2 * bar_h;
- var vb_x = -.5 * vb_w, vb_y = -.5 * vb_h;

svg(viewBox=[vb_x, vb_y, vb_w, vb_h].join(' '))
    rect#bar(y=-bar_h width=bar_w height=bar_h)

    - for(var i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      - var x = (i - .5 * n) * bar_w;
      use(xlink:href='#bar' x=x)
    - }

The result of the above code can be seen in the following Pen:

Now that we have created these bars, we want to position the svg element nicely and we do that using flexbox. We also want to shade the bars the same way we did before. We do all this from the SCSS:

$n: 10;
$c: #63a6c1 #1e3f57;
$bar-w: 1.25em;
$bar-h: 5 * $bar-w;
$loader-w: $n * $bar-w;
$loader-h: 2 * $bar-h;

body {
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;
  margin: 0;
  height: 100vh;

svg {
  align-self: center;
  width: $loader-w; height: $loader-h;

@for $i from 0 to $n {
  $args: append($c, $i * 100%/($n - 1));

  [id='loader'] use:nth-child(#{$i + 1}) {
    fill: mix($args...);

This Pen shows the result of adding the above code:

We clone our #loader group (again, with a use element). We reflect this clone with a scale(1 -1) function and we apply a mask on it, the same way we did this earlier for the pseudo-element. By default, SVG elements are scaled with respect to the 0, 0 point of the SVG canvas, which in this case is located on the bottom edge of our loader which is perfect for reflecting the loader clone down, we don’t need to set a transform-origin.

use(xlink:href='#loader' transform='scale(1 -1)')

We’re using the transform attribute instead of a CSS transform as CSS transforms aren’t supported in Edge – if you want them, please vote for support!

We now have a reflection, as it can be seen in the following Pen:

The last step is to fade our reflection with a mask. It’s exactly the same method and the same code as before so we’re not going to go through it again. The full code is in the final Pen for this method, which you can check out below:


The CSS animation in the original pen is a pretty straightforward one, rotating the bars in 3D:

@keyframes bar {
  0% {
  transform: rotate(-.5turn) rotateX(-1turn);
  75%, 100% { transform: none; }

It’s the same animation for all the bars:

animation: bar 3s cubic-bezier(.81, .04, .4, .7) infinite;

We only add a different delay for each within the bar loop:

animation-delay: $i*50ms;

And since we’re rotating the bars in 3D, we also add a perspective on the loader element.

But this only works as intended in WebKit browsers using the -webkit-box-reflect method.

recording of the final result using -webkit-box-reflect in Chrome

We’ve also added an image background just to show how that would look. The finished demo in this WebKit-only case is:

We can try to get it to work in Firefox as well. However, if we add the animation code to the version that also works in Firefox, things don’t look quite right:

recording of the initial animated version using element() and mask in Firefox

We have a few problems here, as it can be tested live in Firefox:

The first issue is that the reflection gets cut off beyond the boundaries of the pseudo. We can fix this by increasing the loader element dimensions (and therefore, those of the pseudo as well):

$loader-w: ($n + 1) * $bar-w + $bar-h;

But there is nothing we can do about the other two problems – the reflection not being updated smoothly as the bars are rotating in 3D and the presence of the perspective property causing the bars to disappear (see bug 1282312).

recording of the animated version using element() and mask in Firefox (with perspective)
recording of the animated version using element() and mask in Firefox (no perspective)

Live test for Firefox (you can toggle the perspective on and off to see the difference):

What about the all SVG solution? Well, unfortunately, in the above set of keyframes we’re animating CSS 3D transforms. CSS transforms are not yet supported in Edge for SVG elements, which is why we have relied on the transform attribute to create the reflection earlier. But the values of the transform attribute are strictly 2D and we cannot animate them without JavaScript anyway (some might think SMIL, but that’s markup vomit, it has never been supported in Edge/ IE and now it has been deprecated in Chrome).

So there is currently absolutely no way to recreate this kind of bar loader demo in a manner that both works across all browsers and doesn’t duplicate each and every bar. All we can do is have two loader elements, each with the same number of bars:

- 2.times do
    - 10.times do 

The bars are styled the same way as before and we reflect the second loader element down with a scale(-1) transform:

.loader:nth-child(2) {
  transform: scaleY(-1);

We add the bar animation and we get the following result:

Now we need to fade the reflection. Sadly, we cannot apply a mask on the second loader element as masking is cross-browser only in the case of SVG elements. Edge doesn’t yet support masking of HTML elements, but you can vote for it to be implemented.

The only thing we can do is use a gradient cover for the second loader (the reflected one). Note that this also means we cannot have an image background. A solid background or, in very limited cases, a gradient background will have to do. We create this cover from the ::after pseudo-element of the second loader and we make it big enough to cover the bars even as they get rotated.

$bgc: #eee;
$cover-h: $bar-w + $bar-h;
$cover-w: $n * $bar-w + $cover-h;

html { background: $bgc; }

.loader:nth-child(2)::after {
  margin-left: -.5 * $cover-w;
  width: $cover-w; height: $cover-h;
  background: linear-gradient($bgc $bar-w, rgba($bgc, .3));
  content: '';

The result can be seen in the following Pen:

Final thoughts

We need a better cross-browser solution for this. I believe that reflecting an element shouldn’t involve duplicating all its descendants like we needed to do for this bar loader. That we shouldn’t need to switch to an SVG solution (which also comes with its own problems) just so that we can make the reflection fade and have an image background behind.

Which is the better solution? -webkit-box-reflect or element() + mask? I don’t know. I’d personally like to have them both available cross-browser.

I used to be certain I didn’t want an extra element for the reflection, though a :reflection pseudo-element sounded reasonable. But now there’s something I’d like better than not having an extra element. It’s the freedom to create multiple reflections in different directions and transform these reflections in various ways, like rotating them in 3D or skewing them. Using the element() method allows for all this stuff, which is why I like it. Not to mention that using SVG for masking means we can apply more complex masks to these reflections and get cooler effects.

On the other hand, with great power comes great responsibility. Maybe you can’t afford to take the time to get familiar with all the intricacies behind the more powerful method. Sometimes you just want a simple method to get a simple result.