An image on my website is not seen only on iOS devices whereas it seems perfectly fine on Android devices or PC. So, the issue is not with mobile devices in general.
The first image (http://img.daksh.me/eric-grassien1.jpg) is the only one that appears to have a problem associated with it. Other images on my ‘Services’ page, etc. work fine across all devices (iOS included). Here are some screenshots taken on different devices:
This issue has been frustrating me since several days.
I’ve tried re-uploading the image, disabling plugins one by one, and even disabling CSS. In all the cases, iOS shows no image while all other devices display the image properly.