Okay, the original code makes more sense… it simply removes the
www from the web address if it’s present. Something I tend to do as well but with
htaccess rules instead. Definitely not necessary.
I just used a US proxy and it changed to… UNITED STATES.
That bit of code is likely created (echoed) with PHP, based on the IP address – and browser sniffing the OS in case of the other one. You don’t really need it but removing it will mess up the variables in the external script.
Which brings me to the main question – if it’s only about those three items on the page then there’s a lot of abundant code. You could rip most of it out but it’s quite tedious.