Do you still have the USB (or CD) that you used to install Ubuntu? If you boot with it (choose [Try Ubuntu], not [Install Ubuntu]), there is an excellent program called gparted that you can use to check out your hard drive.
As for the Windows side of things, I’m sure there’s someone more qualified than I to get it working. I haven’t seriously used Windows in years. Is the Windows disk you have a full installation disk, a “restore to factory state” disk, or just a “restore point” cd?
edit this page might be helpful.
(disclaimer: for your review; I have never had this problem nor tried to fix it.)