Don’t think that you’ll ever settle to one particular workflow. It will always change and evolve. I’m always testing new tools and evaluating things so that it makes my life easier. You say you’re long time Linux user. I recently started writing my own Shell Scripts to expedite the process of setting up new projects. There are tools like Yeoman that help you scaffold a project. Tools like Grunt.js can help with automation such as live reload, code quality check, js, sass, less, minification, ect…
Be careful tho. Some of the side affects of choices is that you get paralysis by analysis. Don’t dwell on decision making too much, just make the decision and keep creating work, evaluate and improve later.
Just to clarify one point about Git: it’s not about backup, when you save your files to external disk that’s backup, when you version control something that mean each time you commit, it can be reverted back. Think of it as that stupid Windows “restore point” crap. If you break something you can easily go back. Another thing with Git, if you host it with Github, is that you have more flexibility when deploying your site. You can clone/push from any computer located just about anywhere in the world. Log into your server via SSH, clone repo, run whatever commands you need to run and you’re up and running. Some resources.
Important: Don’t feel like you need to learn everything at once. You are only one person and this stuff takes time; only so many hours in a day!
Truck along as you are now and integrate something new with every new project you start. Don’t contemplate
That was long… anyways…
What things do you feel are slowing you down? What do you feel like you need to get you to a place where you wanna be with your workflow?
Don’t think that any of us have all this figured out. You’ll soon realize it’s not only that your development needs a workflow but every other aspect of your business.